Skip to main content

Full text of "Arts programs for juvenile offenders in detention and corrections : a guide to promising practices"

See other formats

■ 1 ~W" ^~^^ 

For Juvenile O 
In Detention 

A Guide 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 

For Juvenile Offenders 
In Detention and Corrections 


Grady Hillman 

with Survey and Report 
by Susan Warner 

Edited by Janet Shute 

Designed by Mark McCulloch 




Office of Juvenile Justice endowment 

and Delinquency Prevention FOR THE ARJS 


This guide to promising practices in arts-in-juvenile justice programming owes much to 
many people. The information it contains reflects the expertise and generous spirits of 
professionals from both the corrections and arts worlds. 

Pivotal to the grants program "Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and 
Corrections" were Eric Stansbury, Program Manager with the Office of Juvenile Justice 
and Delinquency Prevention, and Lee Kessler, Director of Federal Partnerships, and Molly 
Gaston )Johnson, Intergovernmental Specialist, both with the National Endowment for 
the Arts. 

It is hoped that this publication will provide testimony to the hard work and inspira- 
tional efforts of all the staff and artists who participated and still work in the Pilot and 
Enhancement projects of the Initiative. People who made significant contributions to 
their programs and are not mentioned in the text include Laverne Harrison and Patty 
Cherry in Gainesville; Susan Hill in California; and Beverly Roach, Jack Rosati, Turi 
Gilbert, and Pat Fulton in Rochester. Pat died unexpectedly just before the publication 
of this Guide, and it is dedicated to her memory. 

SCAN (Southwest Correctional Arts Network), under the direction of Dianne Logan, 
provided necessary support for the Technical Assistance Program. 

Many people in the field served as both sounding boards and teachers on the themes in 
this handbook. Some of them made valuable presentations at the institutes, and they are 
recognized in that section of this Guide. Others who helped include Gaye Drennon with 
VSA Arts Florida and Sherry Haller at the Justice Education Center. Special recognition 
goes to Mary Sipper at the Arts Endowment who provided extensive notes to the first 

Photographs unless otherwise credited were provided by the programs depicted. 

Cover photograph: Painting, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach. 

The National Endowment for the Arts provides national recognition and support to 
significant projects of artistic excellence, thus preserving and enhancing our nation's di- 
verse cultural heritage. The Endowment was created by Congress and established in 1 965 
as an independent agency of the federal government. Since then, it has awarded more 
than 113,000 grants to arts organizations and artists in all fifty states and the six U.S. 
jurisdictions. This public investment in the nation's cultural life has resulted in both 
new and classic works of art reaching every corner of America. 

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is a component of the Office 
of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of 
Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime. 

This project was supported by Grant No. 1999 JN FX 0006 awarded by the Office of 
Justice Programs. 

The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are 
those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Justice or the 
National Endowment for the Arts. 

£7able of Contents 



Lessons Learned 


A. Collaboration Building 15 

B. Strategic Planning 16 

C. Program Design 17 

D. Artist Selection and Training 18 

E. Residency Implementation 19 

F. Community Linkages 21 

G. Evaluation, Advocacy and Sustainability 23 


Recommended Solutions 




By Susan Warner 



j^roject Overview 

Project Description 

Project Strategy 

The U.S. Department of Justice, through the Office of Ju- 
venile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the 
National Endowment for the Arts began a dialogue in 1 997 
around the topic of arts programming specifically for young 
offenders in detention settings. Both agencies had become 
aware of the significant number of arts programs being gen- 
erated by local or state constituent institutions for the pur- 
pose of diminishing delinquent behavior by youth. The col- 
laboration between OJJDP and the Arts Endowment cul- 
minated in a new two-year initiative titled Arts Programs for 
Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections, which was 
announced in the summer of 1998. The goal was to imple- 
ment and enhance arts-based programming for offenders in 
juvenile detention and corrections facilities - programming 
that could be used as a model for other regions and that could 
provide "promising practice" lessons for arts initiatives na- 
tionwide. Specifically, the Request for Proposals (RFP) 


To implement arts-based programming for juvenile offend- 
ers in juvenile detention and corrections facilities. 


To provide juvenile offenders in detention and cor- 
rections facilities with arts programming to enhance 
the youths' cognitive, linguistic, social, and civic de- 

To provide, promote, and coordinate collaborative 
arts programs in the community for juveniles com- 
ing out of correctional programs, so they can con- 
tinue their arts experience. 

OJJDP and the Arts Endowment selected and funded six 
programs in five states: California, Florida, New York, 
Texas and Washington. Two year funding was designated 

Three Pilot Demonstration Projects "to develop and imple- 
ment a new arts-based program for adjudicated youth uti- 
lizing direct technical assistance provided through this na- 
tional initiative." 

Three Enhancement Sites Projects "to demonstrate prac- 
tices that have achieved sustainable programs, and to serve 
as case studies for the development of technical assistance 
materials to support program development in new sites. 
Grants to the Enhancement Sites Project will enable these 
existing programs to strengthen their infrastructure through 
staff training and improved program design and/or expan- 
sion of current activities. 

Technical Assistance and Training "for the purpose of en- 
suring focused, professional technical support for program 
development and implementation, including program de- 
sign, artist selection and training, and interaction between 
arts organizations and the juvenile justice system. The tech- 
nical assistance materials that will be developed through this 
national initiative will provide a blueprint for communities 
throughout the Nation that seek to undertake similar pro- 
grams." This Guide is a result of that intention. 

Three of the six funded programs worked with juvenile of- 
fenders in maximum security correctional facilities; three with 
juveniles in detention and/or community-based aftercare 
programs. This handbook reports on the lessons that have 
been learned by these programs — lessons that are important 
for both the arts and the corrections worlds. 

Mask making, 
School, West 
Palm Beach 

Project Philosophy: 
Master Artist Instruction 

The premise of this project was that arts instruction be pro- 
vided by professional artists. This project was grounded in 
the belief that juvenile offenders could best be challenged 
and inspired by master artists who could not only train them 
in hands-on arts skills, but also introduce them to career 
opportunities in the art world. All three pilot program sites, 
for example, previously had arts education programs, but 
none of them had a practicing artist working with youth. 
Paid professional artists were contracted to set up "residen- 

Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Dance class, Florida Institute for Girls, West Palm Beach 

cies" in detention and correctional programs, thus enhanc- 
ing opportunities for multiple learning styles, the develop- 
ment of critical thinking skills, linguistic ability, and social 
interaction. These residencies were to be an established and 
stable part of the facility's programs, no matter whether the 
program served short- or long-term clients. 

Need for Continuity and 
Network of Programming 

Need for continuity 

Throughout this initiative, OJJDP and the Arts Endowment 
continually stressed not only the importance of exposure to 
and participation in arts programming, but also the impor- 
tance of continuity in arts opportunities for high risk young 
people. The RFP stated: "There should be sufficient com- 
munity linkages available to the project to facilitate com- 
munity expansion and ensure continued arts programming 
for youth reintegrating into the community from juvenile 
justice facilities." The design of the Initiative required that 
each site provide for and describe "how participating youth 
will be integrated into arts programming in the community 
following their release from the facility." This push for con- 
tinuity helped shape the design of some programs. 

Arts to help resocialize adjudicated youth 
into the community 

Ideally, the mission of an arts-in-juvenile justice program 
should not simply be to provide skills based arts instruction 
to youth who are incarcerated or court-involved, but also to 
open the world of the arts to these youth by identifying or 
providing cultural resources in transitional settings so that 
the arts can become a consistent and constructive part of 
their lives. For some youth, an arts workshop can provide a 
safe haven. For others, it might provide the motivation to 

stay in school, participate in an arts program after release or 
attend college. To that end, while this national initiative tech- 
nically funded programs for "juvenile offenders in detention 
and corrections," the pilot and enhancement programs spilled 
over into alternative education and/or community-based af- 
tercare sites that worked to support the resocialization and 
community reintegration of high risk, court-involved youth. 

Importance of Arts-in-Juvenile 
Justice Programming 

Power of arts programming 

Young people who are involved in the criminal justice sys- 
tem are at high risk for myriad ongoing negative, dysfunc- 
tional and destructive behaviors. In most cases, they lack the 
skills, self-respect, motivation, role models and support sys- 
tems that will help them become responsible adults. One 
type of intervention that has been demonstrated to work suc- 
cessfully to address and counter these challenges and to re- 
direct young people away from violence - no matter whether 
the juvenile's court involvement includes truancy, commu- 
nity-based sanctions, detention or juvenile correctional in- 
stitutions — is participation in arts programs. Arts programs 
provide significant impact for a relatively small outlay of 

As OJJDP and the Arts Endowment acknowledged in the 

"Arts-based programs for juvenile offenders are highly em- 
powering and transforming for the participants. These pro- 
grams support the premise that participation in arts program- 
ming reduces risk factors that cause youth to be more sus- 
ceptible to problem behaviors and crime (e.g., social alien- 
ation, school failure, impulsivity) and enhances protective 
factors that reduce the impact of risk factors and enable youth 
to lead productive lives (e.g., by increasing communication 
skills, conflict management techniques, and positive peer 

Previous OJJDP/Arts Endowment collaboration 

This federal initiative is the second collaborative program 
offered by OJJDP in partnership with the Arts Endowment. 
The Youth ARTS Development Project, which provided 
funding for programs with court-involved youth in the cit- 
ies of Portland, Atlanta, and San Antonio, has shown that 
providing youth with new skills, giving them the opportu- 
nities to use these skills, and offering them positive feedback 
and recognition for their hard work can potentially lead to 
healthier attitudes and positive behaviors: 

• At all three sites data suggested improvements in 
attitudes toward school and reductions in delinquent 
behavior reported by the youths. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 

• At all three sites data indicated that participating 
youth had gained skills they were proud of and skills 
which could increase opportunities for success in 
many aspects of their lives. 

This handbook helps continue to inform the public about 
benefits of arts programs in ways that have gone from the 
anecdotal to the quantitative. 1 

Project evaluations 

Sites in this initiative did not use a uniform evaluation meth- 
odology; however, the findings reported from the sites in- 
clude the following: 

• Reduced disciplinary infractions in both alternative 
education and correctional facilities. 

• Improved attendance in alternative education set- 

• Reduced recidivism upon release from correctional 

These findings are described more fully in the Project De- 

Lesson learned 

The programs funded and highlighted in this handbook are 
each discrete and unique in locus, design, personnel, and 
cultural resources. Because the programs are so varied, this 
is not a "how-to" manual for replication of any one of the 
six funded programs. Rather it is in effort to share lessons 
learned from the experiences of the six sites and to address 
areas of concern that appear common to all arts-in-juvenile 
justice programs. 

The primary lesson learned is that there is no one 
successful program or type of program. Different 
models work within different environments, and 
one of the goals of this handbook is to give the 
practitioner enough materials to be an advocate 
in his or her community. No program starts in a 
vacuum. All benefit from planning, training, 
evaluation, and establishing local networks of 
support and expertise. And all need broad-based 
support from their institutions — to provide a 
strong foundation, to ensure programmatic suc- 
cess, and to work towards program develop- 
ment and continuity. 

. '.■■■ ' ' ' ';■'■ 

Student photography, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach. 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

j^roject Descriptions 

Lessons Learned 

Enhancement Projects Type of Facility 

Collaborative Partners 

Type of Program 

Experimental Gallery 

Tacoma, Washington 


Six maximum security state 
correctional facilities for 
incarcerated youth and one 
detention center 


Department of Human Services 
Pierce County Detention Center 


Seattle Children's Museum 

Museum of Glass: International Museum of 
Contemporary Art 

Variety of media in correctional 
settings including theater, film/video, 

Fred C. Nelles Facility 

Whittier, California 


Maximum security facility for 
incarcerated youth 


California Youth Authority 


ArtsReach - UCLA Extension 

Variety of media in correctional 
setting, including dance, music, visual 
art, and creative writing 

Bronx WritersCorps 

New York City, New York 

Detention and 

Detention center, plus parolee 
aftercare setting 


Horizons Detention Center 

New York Department of Juvenile Justice 


Bronx Council on the Arts 

Creative writing programs in 
correctional settings, especially poetry 

Pilot Projects 

Texas Youth 

Gainesville, Texas 


Maximum security correctional 
facility for young serious 


Gainesville State School 


Texas Commission on the Arts 

Arts within an educational setting, 
including visual arts, theater, creative 
writing, music and photography 

Monroe County 
Children's Center 

Rochester, New York 

Detention and 

Detention center, plus work with 
county court, probation and 
parole programs 


Monroe County Children's Center 

Office of Children and Family Services 

Department of Corrections 

Monroe County Teen Court 

Monroe County Juvenile Probation Department 


Rochester Arts Reach 

Arts within correctional settings, 
including visual arts, ceramics/ 
sculpture, woodworking, creative 
writing and photography 

West Palm Beach 
School District 

West Palm Beach, Florida 

Detention and 

Four short term and long term 
residential facilities for 
adjudicated youth, and 
alternative school that focuses 
on prevention, intervention and 


Palm Beach Halfway House 
Palm Beach Youth Center 
Florida Institute for Girls 
Palm Beach Detention Center 


Roosevelt Alternative School 

Variety of arts, both performing and 
visual within educational settings and 
in corrections 

A Guide to Promising Practices 

Project Descriptions 

Enhancement Projects 

The Initiative funded three programs with a proven track 
record as enhancement sites. The purpose was to support 
these programs, then to learn from them. 

Experimental Gallery 

Seattle/Tacoma, Washington 
Maximum security and detention 

Program summary 

Experimental Gallery, an outreach program of the Museum 
of Glass: International Center for Contemporary Art, un- 
der the direction of Susan Warner, has been providing cur- 
riculum-based arts instruction to incarcerated youth in six 
maximum security state correctional facilities for over seven 
years in collaboration with the Washington State Depart- 
ment of Human Services (DHS). Having won a Coming Up 
Taller award from the President's Committee on the Arts 
and Humanities in 1998, it is a nationally recognized and 
highly regarded arts-in-juvenile justice program. 

Susan Warner conceived Experimental Gallery as a program 
of the Washington State Historical Society. Three years af- 
ter its inauguration she moved the program to the Seattle 
Children's Museum where it resided 
until its move to the Museum of Glass 
in 200 1 . The move to the new site has 
afforded Warner the opportunity to 
integrate the arts programs for juvenile 
offenders into the mission of the Mu- 
seum that is scheduled to open in July 

of 2002. In recognition of its successful programs, Experi- 
mental Gallery has received a significant grant from the 
Governor's office to include youth from the Pierce County 
Detention Center in Tacoma in the design and construc- 
tion of an art installation which will also produce electricity 
for the new museum facility. 

Goals of enhancement program 

Experimental Gallery has implemented programs in a vari- 
ety of arts media, and has drawn from its museum based 
experience to present student work to the public creatively 
through publications, recordings, and exhibitions. With en- 
hancement funding from OJJDP and the Arts Endowment, 
Experimental Gallery has: a) expanded its arts programming 
in the DHS sites (e.g., a student production of Julius Caesar 
at the Green Hill facility); b) implemented a visual arts pro- 
gram in the King County Detention Center; c) leveraged a 
multi-media project from a lawyer's group in Seattle for 
youth in detention to produce a film/video about an agreed 
upon issue of social concern; and d) linked its correctional 
programs with an Experimental Gallery visual arts and pho- 
tography project in the Seattle Children's Hospital. 

Primary lessons learned/accomplishments 

Warner attributes the success and longevity of Experimen- 
tal Gallery to the use of very high quality artists, extended 
residencies that can develop student talent, and producing 
excellent products in the form of books, CDs, and videos 
that effectively sell the program to the public and funders. 

The workshops emphasize 
experiential learning to 
facilitate the residents' search 
for solutions to real issues while 
developing academic and 
vocational skills. 

Prior to receiving an enhancement 
grant from the Arts Endowment and 
OJJDP, Experimental Gallery collabo- 
rated with researchers from the Uni- 
versity of Washington on a three-year 
longitudinal evaluation of its pro- 

Production of Julius Caesar, Green Hill Training School, Experimental Gallery Photos by Steve Davis 

8 Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

grams. The resulting document was A Changed World by 
Dr. Mark Ezell. This independent evaluation concluded that 
students in the program achieve their learning goals, improve 
their incident rate of misbehavior by 75%, and are 50% less 
likely to reoffend. 

The workshops emphasize experiential learning to facilitate the 
residents' search for solutions to real issues while developing aca- 
demic and vocational skills. They also demonstrate to students 
the significance of their own experiences and voices, and pro- 
vide an environment in which they experience success. 

— Dr. Mark Ezell, University of Washington 

Fred C. Nelles Facility 

Whittier, California 
Maximum security 

Program summary 

Fred C. Nelles, a maximum security facility for incarcerated 
youth, enjoys a relationship with its collaborative partner 
ArtsReach — UCLA Extension which has generated arts pro- 
grams for the adult correctional system for over 20 years. 
The Whittier program draws from a large pool of highly 
qualified artists in the Los Angeles area. The artists are rec- 
ognized professionals with experience in conducting residen- 
cies for high risk youth. Artist Susan Hill, a principal in the 
OJJDP project, is Director of ArtsReach and has extensive 
experience in arts-in-corrections programming and evalua- 
tion, having generated the milestone Brewster Report, the 
first documentation of reduced recidivism for adult offend- 
ers involved in arts programs. The CYA program was re- 
viewed as one of nine best practice model nationally for pro- 
viding arts programs to high risk youth in the RAND re- 
port, The Arts and Public Safety Impact Study: An Examina- 
tion of Best Practices, (see McArthur) 

Goals of enhancement program 

The enhancement grant to the California Youth Authority 
supports an arts program in the Fred C. Nelles facility of 
Whittier. "The exchange of ideas and experiences from the 
artists will challenge the youthful offenders' beliefs, force 
them to address their fears, and help them to recognize quali- 
ties in themselves and in others." This project offers inten- 
sive semester long programs in dance, music, visual art, and 
creative writing, all organized around a curriculum with the 
theme of multiculturalism. Given that the California Youth 
Authority hosts a population which is ethnically diverse, the 
intent of this project is not only to provide high quality skills- 
based arts instruction but also to encourage tolerance for oth- 
ers through teaching international art forms. These programs 
are directed by an Artist Facilitator Shelly Wood, who is 
employed in a permanent non-grant funded position with 
the California Youth Authority. She supervises programs at 
Fred C. Nelles and three other CYA facilities in Southern 
California. A Northern California Artist Facilitator handles 
four arts programs at units in the northern half of the state. 

Primary lessons learned/accomplishments 

The curriculum is thematic, well organized and always cul- 
minates in an event — either performance or publication. The 
residencies are of sufficient length to build skills, and all stu- 
dents participate in all four residency strands. The artists meet 
regularly to coordinate their curricula and students transi- 
tion smoothly from one program to another. Almost all 
youth in the Fred C. Nelles facility participate in the arts 
program, and the arts have become a mainstay of its treat- 
ment program. The California Arts Council has recently pro- 
vided significant funding to support and enhance on-going 
arts programs throughout California Youth Authority cor- 
rectional facilities. 


mm &.-. 

kL JO 1 4fl^| 

'T' ^^^ •* 

;MHpHh, ,„. 


JPF" m, Jf .... BW K f. 
f ^ " i^ ^ 

■• if*;. X&v's 

{% Byf <J 

jl2 r^^^^^'Z-wx* 




JT p wpmjSZM 1 


pm. ._ ^^^■-— — 

■*— — ^* 

A Guide to Promising Practices 

The CYA arts program has been in place for ten years and 
owes its stability in part to its attempt at replicating the highly 
successful adult model. Outside artists are contracted to con- 
duct residencies by artist facilitators who fill state jobs in the 
CYA budget. Grants and support from the California Arts 
Council supplement the program, but this program's insti- 
tutionalization in the juvenile justice system contributes 
greatly to its sustainability. 

Bronx WritersCorps 

New York City, New York 
Detention and aftercare 

Program summary > 

Originally an AmeriCorps funded program, the Bronx 
WritersCorps, under the direction of Laurie Palmieri, be- 
came an independent organization like its sister programs 
in Washington DC. and San Francisco several years ago. 
Currently, it provides creative writing residencies through 
the financial support and direction of the Bronx Council 
on the Arts. The Bronx WritersCorps maintains a solid ros- 
ter of accomplished New York City writers providing pro- 
fessional mentorship to youth in the program. Participants 
are taken through the process of conception to ultimate pub- 
lication of their creative writing and/or performance in "po- 
etry slams." In poetry slams, youth perform alongside com- 
munity poets. Every year, these young authors participate 
in a Celebrity Slam, judged by New York City film and TV 
stars, recording artists, and stage performers. 

Goals of enhancement program 

Through its enhancement grant from OJJDP and the Arts 
Endowment, the Bronx WritersCorps parolees in partner- 
ship with the New York Department of Juvenile Justice pro- 
posed to provide complete creative writing programs, con- 
ception to publication, for youth in the new Horizons De- 
tention Center and in an after-care setting for juvenile. The 
WritersCorps also houses a permanent facility in the Bronx 
where youth referred from the detention center and parole 
program can come off the street to attend workshops, read, 
or write. These programs would be complementary to the 
many WritersCorps programs in Bronx housing develop- 
ments, shelters, schools, and after-school projects. 

Primary lessons learned/accomplishments 

The WritersCorps has successfully implemented its enhance- 
ment program, and interaction with artists, mentors and the 
community have had a positive effect on many participants. 
In the second year of the OJJDP/Arts Endowment enhance- 
ment project, a youth was referred to the post-detention af- 
ter-care program of the Bronx WritersCorps. Working 

closely with lead artist Andre Hamilton, this young man 
made great strides both as a writer and in his ability to posi- 
tively cooperate with and sometimes lead others. He was se- 
lected to represent the Bronx at a nationwide Celebrity Slam 
in Washington DC where he had the opportunity to "slam" 
against such poets as Nikki Giovanni. The juvenile justice 
staff who work with this young man state that his life has 
been transformed for the better by the Bronx WritersCorps. 
His accomplishments serve as evidence that providing con- 
tinuity of services between corrections and the community 
is an effective strategy for youth development. 

The arts-in-juvenile justice program of the Bronx 
WritersCorps is integrated into a total community service 
model of community-based creative writing residency pro- 
grams working with high risk youth affording a variety of 
opportunities for court-involved youth to continue their arts 

Pilot Projects 

Texas Youth Commission 
Gainesville State School 

Gainesville, Texas 
Maximum security 

Program summary 

The Gainesville State School is a large maximum security 
correctional facility for young serious offenders in the Texas 
Youth Commission system aged 14-21. The average age of 
detainees is 16, and the facility houses 340 male students. 
The arts program operates out of the facility's school, pri- 
marily a competency-based high school diploma program 
with GED and vocational training components. The school 
is "normal" in that it provides certified teachers in all cur- 
ricular areas including arts and foreign language. 

Goals of pilot program 

Prior to program inception, every youth in the Gainesville 
facility was provided a Student Application form. This form 
determined if the student was interested in attending an art 
class and, if so, what medium of art was preferred. Based on 
this survey, the school created three strands of art program- 
ming — studio instruction/visual arts, theater/ creative writ- 
ing, and music. In the visual arts strand the students worked 
sculpture, painting and photography. In theatre/creative writ- 
ing, students concentrated on writing and producing short 
pieces around delinquency and gang involvement in addi- 
tion to other topics that were relevant to them. The music 
strand provided instrumental classes and opportunities for 
performance. Students receive elective high school credits in 

Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

these areas if their performance is satisfactory and meets the 
state's skill requirements. The instructors are all professional 
artists, but they have worked with the school Principal, Anne 
Lovett, to assure that the areas covered and skill levels 
achieved will meet the academic essential element require- 
ments of the State of Texas. 

Primary lessons learned/accomplishments 

The arts program is primarily a correctional intervention and 
after-care model . Juvenile offenders come from the entire 
state of Texas, so there is no natural community linkage be- 
tween the facility and home communities. To make the arts 
part of the resocialization process for Gainesville students, 
dialogues were initiated with the Texas Commission on the 
Arts, resulting in the creation of a referral process to com- 
munity-based arts programs for youth leaving the facility. 
The referral process also includes identifying arts programs 
at community colleges for the home-bound youth. 

All students in the program were given the opportunity to 
perform or have their works exhibited on several occasions 
— graduations and visiting state and national assemblies. 
Work was also displayed in Washington DC where the 
Gainesville arts program received an award by the Juvenile 
Justice Centennial for innovation in juvenile justice settings. 
Select students were allowed to leave the facility to partici- 
pate in a state-wide Texas Youth Commission talent show 
and to be present for their own exhibition of art and pho- 
tography in a Dallas gallery. 


Pill* ^"m QM 

Painting, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach 

Painting and sculpture, Roosevelt Alternative School, 
West Palm Beach 

The arts program was recognized nationally by a national 
Juvenile Justice Committee honoring model programs for 
the 100th anniversary of the creation of the juvenile court 
in the United States. 

Gainesville faced two major obstacles in developing its pro- 
gram. The first problem arose from the rural nature of the 
school. It was difficult to find high quality artists who lived 
in the area or who were willing to commute from the Dallas 
Metroplex on a daily basis. An obstacle to sustaining the pro- 
gram beyond the grant period was the fact that the program 
was designed to provide elective credits and most of the in- 
carcerated youth were either pursuing GEDs or already had 
high school diplomas, so there was no institutional invest- 
ment in maintaining the program. These problems are be- 
ing resolved in cooperation with the Texas Commission on 
the Arts which has a large roster of community artists and 
provides grant funding for youth programs that need not 
have an educational basis. 

Monroe County Children's Center 
P.A.I.N.T.S. Program 

Rochester, New York 

Prevention, detention and aftercare 

Program summary 

The P.A.I.N.T.S. (Provide Arts Instruction for Neglected and 
Troubled Students) program is a collaboration between the 
Monroe County Children's Center and Rochester Arts Reach, 
an arts residency outreach provider for individual artists, arts 
organizations, and major arts institutions in the Rochester area. 
The program is directed by Larry Naylor from Arts Reach. 
The Monroe County Children's Center houses upwards of 
45 youth ages 10-16 at any one time who are being detained 
at the facility while awaiting adjudication or permanent place- 
ment by the courts. Youth may reside at the facility for as 
little as one week or as long as six months. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Painting, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach 

Goals of pilot program 

tions is to create a total Rochester/Monroe County preven- 
tion, intervention, and after-care program for youth involved 
in the juvenile justice system, and a referral system that is in 
place for students to move from one arts program to an- 
other as part of their successful transition. 

Preliminary evaluation data documented by outside evalua- 
tors examined 18 indicators of success and confirmed that 
the P.A.I.N.T.S. program "contributes to participants' mo- 
tivation to strive for a positive future, improves students' 
behavioral skills needed to succeed in attaining their aspira- 
tions, and inspires students' desires to be constructive and 
to seek out lifelong learning opportunities that will sustain 
their success through difficult times." 

The P.A.I.N.T.S. program was a featured presenter at a state- 
wide gathering of the New York Juvenile Detention Asso- 
ciation conference. 

The primary goal of the P.A.I.N.T.S. program was to "pro- 
vide positive arts experiences through frequent direct con- 
tact with local professional artists who emphasize excellence, 
establish clear expectations, and reward progress as an op- 
portunity to succeed." The OJJDP/Arts Endowment project 
enables Arts Reach to bring in an array of programs for short- 
and long-term clients. Short-term, 2 to 6 hour workshops 
are available to all youth at the facility. 

Long-term residents, who stay an av- , f ch jl dren are fo gmw and 
eraee of 156 days at the facility, are of- / r , , ., 

r & . . ...,ii i ■ make meaningful change there 

rered intensive skills based arts instruc- , . , . , , r 

, , , , must be more than the fear of 

tion in ceramics/sculpture, woodwork- 

ing, creative writing and photography Punishment as an enforcer. 

residencies. These residencies are con- 
ducted by community artists who also provide workshops 
in community residencies. This allows artists to become 
mentors for youth leaving detention, thus helping young 
people make successful transitions back into their home 

Arts Reach and the Monroe County Children's Center made 
a concerted effort to bring in area juvenile justice collabora- 
tors, and they were enthusiastically received. However, ser- 
vices were stretched thin and in some instances, workshops 
were overloaded with youth threatening the efficacy of the 
program. On-going communication between the artists and 
the partners resolved the difficulty. Partners agreed to help 
secure new funding for the programs by writing grants and 
supported the efforts of P.A.I.N.T.S. 
to secure state funding at the legisla- 
tive level. 

To the casual observer the P. A. I.N. T.S. 
program may appear as just another at- 
tempt to help maintain a youth while 
in a locked facility. But truly the depth of this program is far 
reaching. If children are to grow and make meaningful change 
there must be more than the fear of punishment as an enforcer. 
The change must come from within as they embrace our system 
of morality and justice. 

The Monroe County Children's Center also offers visual arts 
instruction as part of its school's core curriculum. This aca- 
demic program has integrated the workshops and residen- 
cies into its curricular and extra-curricular program through 
the efforts of art teacher Beverly Roach. 

Primary lessons learned/accomplishments 

P.A.I.N.T.S. has developed an array of multi-disciplinary arts 
programs for the county probation department, a neighbor- 
hood revitalization organization (The Northeast Area De- 
velopment Corporation has received a building to be used 
as a community arts center for court-involved youth), a 
neighboring state correctional facility, a teen drug court, and 
state parole programs serving juveniles returning to the com- 
munity after incarceration. The mission of these collabora- 

Painting, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

The opportunity to participate in a myriad of new, fresh activi- 
ties opens the door to a totally new world for many of our kids. 
The artist becomes a mentor and conduit for change. The abil- 
ity to continue these relationships and programs after discharge 
from detention sustains these gains. 

—Jack Rosati, Director, Monroe County Children's Center 

The P. A.I.N. T.S. Program sponsored by Arts Reach has been a 
wondeful addition to Industry's School programming this year. 
It has allowed residents outlets in creativity where they can ex- 
press themselves in healthy, pro-social, positive ways. 

Through this program, residents have been able to learn practi- 
cal applications for academic skills and concepts such as mea- 
surement and spatial relationships, African history, culture, 
myths, and element of poetry. They have gained confidence in 
their own abilities, and have shown support for one another as 
they work to complete their projects and showcase their efforts. 
Social interaction skills, which they have gained while working 
with the artists, have been as valuable as those they were able to 
practice with each other. Most importantly, they have begun to 
think about more positive alternatives for using their free time. 
— Thomas Coultry, Director, Industry School 

It [P.A.I. N.T.S. Program] has allowed 
residents outlets in creativity where 
they can express themselves in 
healthy, pro-social, positive ways. 

West Palm Beach Alternative Arts Center 

West Palm Beach, Florida 
Prevention, detention and aftercare 

Program summary 

In the West Palm Beach project, the original core site was 
the Alternative Arts Center (AAC), a school for disciplinary 
referrals with a fully integrated arts curriculum, run by the 
West Palm Beach School District. One year into the pro- 
gram, the Roosevelt Alternative School, a much larger school 
which accepts disciplinary referrals from the courts absorbed 
the AAC. Services were expanded to the general Roosevelt 
population, and contract artists also provided arts residen- 
cies in four short- and long-term residential facilities for ad- 
judicated youth: a county detention center (Palm Beach Re- 
gional Detention Center); a halfway house (Palm Beach Half- 
way House); a long-term residential facility (Palm Beach 
Youth Center); and a state facility for girls (the Florida In- 
stitute for Girls). Two of the facilities were privatized and 
new partnerships were created at each site. 

Each juvenile correctional facility, with the exception of the 
Florida Institute for Girls, has a West Palm Beach School 
District alternative school on-site which serves as a locus of 
project coordination; detention center staff are equal part- 
ners in decision-making and project management. Lois 
Biddix, Assistant Principal at Roosevelt, coordinates the pro- 
gram with Project Director and lead artist Dee Mac. To- 
gether they are able to refer students from one correctional 
arts program to another and eventually into the Roosevelt 
School. Several students have progressed 
in the program to a level of arts exper- 
tise which has gained them acceptance 
into the regular arts magnet schools of 
West Palm Beach School District. 

Goals of pilot program 

The West Palm Beach pilot project has 
developed as a focused prevention, in- 
tervention and after-care arts-in-juvenile 
justice program. The primary site is the 
Roosevelt Alternative School, a middle 
school/high school for school and court- 
referred disciplinary students from the 
West Palm Beach School District. Al- 
most of the students in this program 
have passed through the juvenile court 
system. At Roosevelt, the arts are pro- 
vided as an incentive program for posi- 
tive behavior. Roosevelt is also a transi- 
tional setting lor youth leaving corrcc- 

Student Exhibition, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


tional facilities, and this site has used a full arts array to help 
transition youth back into the mainstream setting. The arts 
program's goals are to provide creative activities and reduce 
delinquent behavior, increase student attendance and aca- 
demic achievement, and to serve as an effective resocialization 
for youth leaving correctional settings and alternative edu- 
cation venues. 

Primary lessons learned/accomplishments 

Artists in the program are contracted through the regular art- 
ist-in-education program of the host school district. Those se- 
lected to participate in the arts-in-juvenile justice program re- 
ceive special training and assistance in curriculum develop- 
ment. Evaluation results have demonstrated that students in 

the Roosevelt 
program have 
significantly im- 
proved atten- 
dance in school 
and greatly re- 
duced disciplin- 
ary infractions. The West Palm Beach program was presented 
as a model program at the International Network of Perform- 
ing & Visual Arts Schools Conference in October 2000 and 
provided assistance to the Miami Dade Arts Council in the 
development of similar community-based arts programs for 
high risk youth. 

The primary obstacle faced by the Alternative Arts Program 
was a total restructuring of the host alternative education 
program in West Palm Beach. Institutional change on 

This program gave our kids self- 
esteem and an awareness of 
opportunities they would never 
have recognized without it. 

The arts program helped to 
set our girls free from the 
constraints placed on them 
by the lives they have led, 
the crimes they committed, 
and the conseguences they 
are now dealing with. 

almost every administrative level required the program to 
engage in in-house advocacy, educating new administrators 
and principals about the goals of the program. The partners 
and Technical Assistance program aided this process, and 
the program was allowed to grow and fulfill its goals. 

One student has moved on from us to the High School for the 
Arts. When he visited the school for the first time, it was like 
going to a candy store. This program gave our kids self-esteem 
and an awareness of opportunities they would never have rec- 
ognized without it. 

— Pat Thomas, Superintendent of the 
West Palm Beach Halfway House 

The arts program helped to set our girls free from the constraints 
placed on them by the lives they have led, the crimes they com- 
mitted, and the consequences they are now dealing with. They 
learned to think and express themselves by setting words or dance 
to the music within themselves. 

— Jacque Layne, Executive Director, 
Florida Institute for Girls 

Band workshop, Gainesville State School 

Drumming class, Monroe County Children's Center, 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

j^romising Practices 

A. Collaboration Building 

B. Strategic Planning 

C. Program Design 

D. Artist Selection and Training 

E. Residency Implementation 

F. Community Linkages 

G. Evaluation, Advocacy and Sustainability 

It is hoped that this handbook can help new projects learn 
about promising model programs - to derive benefit from 
their experiences and to utilize them as a source of resource 
materials. To that end, "Promising Practices" axe highlighted 
in italics throughout the handbook. 

A. Collaboration Building 

An equitable partnership between an arts organization and a 
juvenile justice organization will enhance program coordina- 
tion and stability. 

One of the precepts of the "Arts Programs for Juvenile Of- 
fenders in Detention and Corrections" Initiative is that every 
program funded — whether an enhancement site or a pilot 
site — involve a collaboration between at least one correctional 
or juvenile justice partner and one arts partner. Why? It is 
imperative that the corrections partner and arts partner both 
feel fully invested in the success of the program and informed 
about its implementation. This assures that the implementa- 
tion of the program is fluid and that cooperation between art- 
ists and correctional staff is supported at the highest levels. As 
a reflection of the importance of this commitment, each site 
was asked to bring a representative from both communities 
to the original training institute in Washington DC. 

Leadership positions in the collaboration must include people 
who are strong in the corrections and social services networks as 
well as people who are strong in the arts. 

Collaboration is critical, regardless of whether the prospec- 
tive correctional partners are state correctional authorities, 
municipal or county detention facilities, or community-based 
or school-based programs for high risk young people and 
youth on probation or parole. Most correctional facilities 
have well defined hierarchies of authority that will need to 
be respected. Correctional administrators, in turn, will look 
for an equivalent chain of command on the arts side, want- 
ing to know who is in charge and what administrative and 
managerial structures are in place. It is critical to have top 
down support for any arts program so that both security staff 
and artists feel secure in knowing the boundaries of their 

Correctional partners 

Anyone endeavoring to create an arts program for court-in- 
volved young people will discover that juvenile justice sys- 
tems vary widely in their organization from state to state and 
county to county, as do probation and parole services. Ef- 
fective and timely communication among justice agencies 
can not be assumed in most states. Indeed, creating partner- 
ships among these entities while building a comprehensive 
arts program network can be the most daunting task that 
arts-in-juvenile justice programs face. For programs to be 
successful and stable, several juvenile justice players need to 
be involved and invested in the planning of arts programs. 
Among them: 

• State: When creating a state-wide collaboration, an 
administrator from the state juvenile justice author- 
ity should be included in early discussions. 

Photogaphy class, Monroe County Children's Center, Rochester 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


• County: It is good to get a juvenile court judge or 
staff members from his or her office involved early; 
also the chief of the probation department should 
be included if detention facilities fall under the do- 
main of the probation department and a director 
of juvenile parole services. 

• Municipal: Family court judges and officers of the 
municipal police authority such as gang taskforce 
officers from the police department ought to be in- 
vited to participate. 

• Site staff: In addition to generating support from 
the "top brass," good collaboration building should 
include members of site staff- juvenile corrections 
officers, detention supervisors, counselors, or teach- 
ers — so that potential roadblocks to program imple- 
mentation can be identified early and avoided or 
resolved. These are the grassroots people who will 
be most actively involved in arts residency planning 
and implementation once they are assured of sup- 
port from the top. 

Arts partners 

On the arts side, potential partners should be institutions or 
organizations already actively engaged in community-based 
arts programming. Preferably, they should have experience 

working with 
high risk youth 
and have a ros- 
ter of profes- 
sional artists 
who have con- 
ducted commu- 
nity residencies 
in schools, af- 
ter-school pro- 
grams, housing 
centers, shelters 
or faith-based organizations. It is preferable that these insti- 
tutions have a tax-exempt status so that they can access a 
full array of funding opportunities for juvenile justice arts 

Potential partners might be local arts agencies, museums, 
community-based arts schools, state arts agencies, or uni- 
versity and college arts outreach programs. Discipline-based 
arts organizations can be good partners, but it is likely that 
once a specific arts program is up and running {e.g., a the- 
ater program), there will be momentum from staff and youth 
to expand to other art forms. In this case, an umbrella arts 
organization that can coordinate and be the potential fiscal 

Cartooning class, Monroe County 
Children's Center, Rochester 

agent for a multi-arts array may be required. This would be 
an agency that could sub-contract with discipline-based arts 
agencies or individual artists as program components are 

In developing the arts collaboration, administrators from the 
arts organization, interested board members, and potential 
artists should be included in early collaboration building. 
This is the core partnership. Obviously, more partners will 
be added as programs expand. 

Client involvement 

It can be very useful to bring members of the community 
being served — adjudicated youth — into the collaboration 
process. The Gainesville facility surveyed youth incarcerated 
there for their preferences in the types of residencies they 
would like to see, and a youth representative was included 
in the interviewing process and given equal say with other 
members of the hiring committee in the selection of artists 
and the Project Director. Thus, youth were invested in the 
program design and artist staffing. 

B. Strategic Planning 

Partnerships must be based on common objectives that are to be 
worked out at the beginning of the planning process. 

After corrections and arts partners have determined they want 
a program, strategic planning typically begins in earnest when 
a funding opportunity is discovered. Sometimes the fund- 
ing opportunity comes first and causes one partner to look 
for another, the collaboration coming as a result of grant 
guidelines. The most critical element of early planning is 
finding quality artists and the money to hire them. If the 
artists have already been identified, then some of these is- 
sues will be resolved in discussion with them and the part- 
ners. If the artists have not been identified, then the length, 
times, purposes, and disciplines taught in arts residencies 
should be defined before any interview process begins. 

Successful programs must have clearly defined identities. 

In designing an arts program for a correctional setting, there 
are some decisions that need to be made. 2 There are several 
issues that need to be confronted in deciding how to ap- 
proach program design. Questions to be addressed include: 

• Integration into school curriculum 

Will the program be integrated into the school curriculum? 
{E.g., West Palm Beach uses a fully integrated curriculum 
tying arts instruction into every core subject area. Gainesville 
provides high school elective credits for its four strands of 
arts programming.) 

• Extra-curricular design 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Will the program 
be extra-curricu- 
lar, which then 
defines the times 
available for pro- 
gramming in the 
correctional set- 
ting as non- 
school hours? 

• Voluntary or 

Ceramics class, Monroe County required 

Children's Center, Rochester 

Will the program 

be voluntary or involuntary? (Large long-term facilities can 

and should have voluntary programs, but detention centers 

often times cannot. If the workshops take place in the day 

room of a detention center pod, every youth in that pod 

will be involved, like it or not, because of staffing issues.) 

• Project tone 

Will the program lend itself to entrepreneurial skills, such 
as ceramics and photography, or will it be more expressive 
in nature, such as dance or theater? 

• End product 

Will the end product be thematic — such as producing art 
about domestic violence or substance abuse - or will it be 
open-ended, with a focus on exploring talent and increasing 
skill levels? 

C. Program Design 

Professional artists should be hired to provide quality skills-based 
arts instruction. 

At the heart of all successful arts-in-juvenile justice programs 
is the given that professional artists will provide quality and 
challenging skills-based arts instruction. This is a master art- 
ist/apprentice model that will emphasize hands-on learning. 
This in no way precludes a role for certified art teachers or 
art therapists, but the primary outcome of arts programs 
should be for the youth to make art at a level that informs 
them about the practices of the professional arts commu- 
nity. The standards for production must be high. These resi- 
dencies are not just for arts education, but are designed to 
give participants opportunities to use their skills for personal 
expression and to provide the option of an entry to the pro- 
fessional art world. 

The curriculum must fit the facility. 

The site where the program will be delivered may have much 
to do with the design of the residency. Detention centers 
have a highly transient population which may not allow for 

in-depth performance-based residencies or complex visual 
arts programs such as printmaking. Long term residential 
facilities offer greater opportunity for in-depth instructional 

Long-term facilities 

An artist working in a state correctional facility might be 
serving youth who are staying in that facility for an average 
of two years. In this case, a twelve-week residency might be 
a drop in the bucket in terms of exploring the interest and 
artistic potential of the youth. Different approaches have 
been taken to address this type of facility. 

• The Fred C. Nelles Facility in Whittier resolves the 
problem by rotating youth from one arts residency 
to another — African dance to Native American 
dance to creative writing to visual art. 

• Gainesville uses four strands of arts programming 
and students can move from a five-month residency 
in photography to visual art to music to creative 
writing/theater arts, in any order. Gainesville art- 
ists may retain two students from each group to con- 
tinue the same strand as peer tutors and to continue 
to develop their high level of skill in that discipline. 

Short-term facilities 

Some sites, like municipal and community detention cen- 
ters, have highly transient populations. Youth may not stay 
long. An artist might expect to see a third of the students 
turn over each 
week, so it be- 
comes a chal- 
lenge to initiate 
new youth and 
continue to de- 
velop the skills 
of those who 
stay. There is 
some argument 
over whether or 
not such pro- 
grams can be 
helpful in re- 
ducing the risk 

factors which contribute to delinquent behavior among par- 
ticipants. However, it is clear from the sites in this initiative 
that distinct benefits are derived. Anecdotal information from 
staff affirm that these programs reduce stress and anxiety 
among detainees who are awaiting court hearings and adju- 
dication. The tension of unfamiliar surroundings, peers, and 
staff is diffused by structured activities which can be both 
individually expressive yet framed within a cooperative 

Sculpture class, Monroe County Children's 
Center, Rochester 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


workshop environment. Another consideration is that even 
if a youth attends only one two-hour session, that exposure 
might have opened up interests and talents that had not been 
.recognized before. This youth can then be referred to com- 
munity-based arts programs upon leaving the facility. 

• The Monroe County Children Center, which has 
both long-term and short-term residents, has inte- 
grated an arts interest questionnaire into the intake 
process for all youth entering detention. This ques- 
tionnaire, along with artist recommendations, fol- 
lows the youth into the community or into other 
correctional settings. 

School-related residencies 

In alternative education and long-term residential settings, 
there is often an opportunity to integrate the arts into the 
school curriculum. 

• West Palm Beach teams an artist with a teacher in 
every subject area at the Alternative Arts Center and 
they collaboratively create a curriculum which will 
enhance student interest and learning. 

• Gainesville operates semester-long residencies un- 
der the supervision of an accredited arts teacher, and 
students can receive elective credits toward a high 
school diploma in the four arts strands provided so 
long as the students demonstrate mastery of the edu- 
cational requirements of Texas. 

Program logistics 

Residency design 

In designing a residency, the example of a community col- 
lege course is a useful guide. Most semesters last 16 weeks 
with approximately 3 hours per week of instruction over 2- 
3 days. Curriculum is designed by the teacher and s/he evalu- 
ates students on personal time. Supplies are provided by the 
college. A Masters Degree or its professional equivalent in 
experience is the standard job requirement. For these 42 

hours of in- 
struction, the 
teacher typically 
receives $1,500- 
$2,500. This 
amounts to 
about $35 to 
$50 per hour of 
instruction not 
including prep 

Student ceramics, Monroe County 
Children's Center, Rochester 

Cost-effective nature of residencies 

Residencies can be designed in much the same fashion. For 
$2,500, a correctional facility could have a twelve-week arts 
program which meets twice a week for two-hour sessions with 
sufficient funding (about $500) for supplies. At the end of 
the residency, there should be a culminating event in the 
form of a performance, exhibit, or publication, allowing the 
participants to display their talents. The culminating event 
will also generate support for the program from the com- 
munity and potential funders. If class size is comprised of 
approximately ten youth, a quality program can be deliv- 
ered for $250 per youth over the span of three months or 
longer. By juvenile justice standards, this is not a very inex- 
pensive program. 

Program implementation and communication 

The artists and arts administrator should meet on a monthly 
basis to discuss the residencies. Artists should be encouraged 
to keep journals of their experiences working in the correc- 
tional classroom. While the journals are private, artists should 
be prepared to share an excerpt with the Project Director and 
other artists working in the program at their meetings. This 
strategy helps the Project Director stay informed about the 
program and also generates a camaraderie and sense of kin- 
ship and support among the artists involved in the program. 

D. Artist Selection and Training 3 

Artist Selection 

Use professional artists who are both great at their craft and 
effective teachers. 

Artist assessment within correctional environment 

Great artists do not always make great teachers, especially in 
correctional environments. In general, artists should be se- 
lected for the quality of their work, their instructional abil- 
ity, their reliability, and their flexibility. If possible, artists 
should be observed with a class, preferably a young offender 
class, as part of the hiring process. They should be asked to 
provide an exposure-type workshop that involves student par- 
ticipation. This will help project coordinators determine if 
the artist can motivate and work effectively with the youth 
in the program. Regardless, all prospective artists should 
make site visits prior to entering into a contract to conduct 
a correctional residency. Oftentimes, the reality of the set- 
ting is off-putting or disturbing in ways that the artists did 
not anticipate. It is best to know how well artists can work 
within correctional environments before attempting to 
implement a residency. 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Cartooning class, 

Monroe County 

Children's Center, 


Knowing the audience 

Artists must also know their audience and be able to design 
a series of exercises which can engage the newcomer while 
developing the skills of the veteran. This is due to the fluid 
student attendance that is often evident in correctional set- 
tings. The activities must be stimulating and culturally rel- 
evant for the defined population. 

Artist Training 

Artists need to be prepared with training and/or intensive ori- 
entation prior to working in a correctional setting by an experi- 
enced professional who has worked with arts-in-juvenile justice 


Artists should go through a training/orientation process, and 
must visit the facilities where they will be working prior to be- 
ginning a residency. Many facilities have an orientation pro- 
gram for volunteers. This can be helpful to the artist in learn- 
ing what the basic rules of the facility are, information about its 
history, mission, and programs, and general background infor- 
mation on the youth incarcerated there. Artists must also be 
educated to understand the realities of working within correc- 
tional institutions. The artists should be prepared to submit their 
driver's licenses and to undergo a criminal background check 
(even a misdemeanor conviction may preclude program par- 
ticipation). The program director or arts programming special- 
ist should also alert artists to possible problem areas that appear 
in some form in most correctional environments: classroom 
management, confidentiality, security, censorship, potential 
adversarial relationship with staff, and accepted parameters for 
friendship and communication with the youth. Artists frequendy 
have to deal with lockdowns, delays, students missing for a va- 
riety of reasons, and restrictions on what supplies can be brought 
in. Even experienced community artists will find themselves per- 
forming new functions, such as counting pencils before and 
after every class. A student strip down conducted by staff can 
be the outcome of a missing Number 2 Yellow. 

E. Residency Implementation 

Program Administration 

Hiring or appointing a Project Director with dedicated respon- 
sibility for the arts-in-juvenile justice program enhances all as- 
pects of the program. 

Need for designated Project Director 

It is a good practice to have a single individual as the 
point person and coordinator of the arts-in-juvenile jus- 
tice program. This Project Director should be able to 
communicate readily with all partners to resolve any is- 
sues when they arise. If the program is small, someone 
on staff at the arts organization or correctional facility 
can dedicate time to serve in the role of Project Direc- 
tor, but this has to be dedicated time and not an addi- 
tion to an already full workload. Coordinating an arts 
program in the juvenile justice system can seem simple 
in the beginning, but almost from its inception, there 
will be pressure to expand the program from the stu- 
dents, the correctional staff, artists, and the community. 
Benefits of the program are immediately obvious: stu- 
dents rapidly display their creative abilities instead of 
destructive behaviors. Staff will soon observe student en- 
gagement in the arts and recognize the arts program as 
an incentive for enhanced interaction with the juvenile 
justice or educational program. This is good, but it also 
creates new demands. 

If multiple residencies are in place, advocacy, documenta- 
tion, evaluation and raising funds toward sustaining the 
project become even more important elements of the juve- 
nile justice arts program. Along with expanding community 
linkages, working with the media, and coordinating exhibi- 
tions, publications, and performances, the partners need to 
raise sufficient funds toward paying and keeping a Project 
Director, and the Project Director can help with this through 
proposal writing and advocacy. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Qualifications for Project Director 

Lead artists who have conducted residencies in a correctional 
facility often become Project Directors. This was the case in 
Rochester and West Palm Beach. Being an artist is not, how- 
ever, a necessary qualification for this position. Some of the 
nation's top arts-in-juvenile justice programs, including Ex- 
perimental Gallery and the Bronx WritersCorps, are directed 
by non-artists. All the arts programs in the federal initiative 
have Project Directors who are clearly designated as respon- 
sible for the conduct of the program. 

Relationship between juvenile justice 
and arts staff 

Staff support in correctional settings is critical. Strong relation- 
ships must be developed and maintained between juvenile jus- 
tice staff and arts staff. A process for ongoing dialogue between 
staff and artists is important to the program. 

Need for staff orientation 

It is important for the artists to meet with correctional staff 
before they begin a residency. Communication with staff is 
critical to staff understanding, acceptance and support of the 
arts program. Early collaboration building is about learning 
faces, building trust and coming up with a common vision 
- common goals and objectives. Difficulties in getting art- 
ists into facilities, gathering youth for workshops, and con- 
ducting workshops without interference often arise when the 
staff does not understand that the artist has been contracted 
to provide an on-going professional service and that the pro- 
gram is considered to be a part of the facility's treatment 
agenda. Staff become much more cooperative once they re- 
alize that the artists are trained and paid, that students have 
been specifically selected for attendance, and that the pro- 
gram is being evaluated and/or has specific goals that are be- 
ing measured. Therefore, staff who are directly involved in 
the arts program should receive a thorough orientation about 
the program prior to its inception. 

Ongoing communication with correctional staff 

Artists and staff should meet at least on a quarterly basis to 
talk about the program. Typically, staff have in-service or 
professional development times already proscribed. Artists 
should be given regular 10-15 minute slots to make presen- 
tations about the program at these regular meetings, so that 
staff are informed and have an opportunity to provide in- 

Need for clarification of roles 

Once artists have worked in a facility for an extended pe- 
riod of time, staff can succumb to the assumption that the 
artist has supervisory credentials. Staff should always be 

Wood sculpture, 
Industry State School, 

present during workshops, and the staff is responsible for 
maintaining the safety of the class. Artists are not trained in 
passive restraint, and, while they are responsible for moti- 
vating students and basic classroom management, they 
should never be called upon to break up a fight or escort 
students to other parts of the facility. Roles and responsi- 
bilities for maintaining security by artists and staff should 
be clearly laid out at the beginning of the residency. 

Youth participation and commitment 

Participation by youth in the program ought to be voluntary 
unless there is a concrete logistical reason for it being involun- 
tary. Once youth commit to the program, they should honor their 
commitment and see the residency through. 



As previously noted, artists working in highly transient de- 
tention centers may have to work with a shifting group of 
participants who did not volunteer for the workshop. How- 
ever, in community-based settings such as probation and 
parole, or in long-term residential settings and alternative 
education settings, students should be referred to the pro- 
gram by counselors, teachers, probation officers, casework- 
ers or other diagnostic personnel based on observed talent 
or the student's expressed interest. 


assroom size 

Classroom size should be appropriate for the space and the 
ability of the teacher to work with all students effectively. 
In Rochester, one photographer's workshop afforded stall a 
popular referral opportunity for youth, and she suddenly dis- 
covered herself with 20 youth meeting in a small probation 
office that could hardly accommodate 10. If possible, a set 
group should be identified at the beginning of the work- 
shop and maintained for the duration of the residency. 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Student commitment 

Program monitoring 

Students should not be allowed to drop out once they have 
committed to the residency unless there is a serious prob- 
lem that prevents their attendance. This should be made clear 
to them up front. While students should be expressive and 
enjoy the arts programs, it should always be clear to them 
and staff that these are workshops directed by professionals 
that are to be taken seriously, not just viewed as recreation. 
The culminating event at the end of the residency, whether 
it is a performance, exhibition or publication, will generally 
supply sufficient motivation for the students to take the class 
and their own efforts seriously. 

Disciplinary procedures 

Artists will be allowed to have students removed from the 
workshop if they do not engage in the workshop or are 
highly disruptive. This should be done in cooperation with 
staff. The staff and artist should also determine a consis- 
tent method for returning the student to class. For example, 
a student may come into an art class and, over the span of 
two workshops, not participate in any meaningful way. Af- 
ter having warned the student, the artist should have the 
option of removing the student for the next workshop. If 
the student returns to the class and still does not partici- 
pate, then the artist should be able to permanently remove 
the student. 

Artists should be required to take written attendance in their 
classes. The number of students served and how many hours 
each student is involved in arts instruction are important 
measurements that can later be correlated with incident rates 
of misbehavior, academic achievement, recidivism, and other 
transformational indicators. 

F. Community Linkages 

Community linkages necessary for arts programming must be 
generated in order to enable the resocialization of incarcerated 
youth into the community. Youth must be tracked and arts docu- 
mentation should be a part of pre-release and pre-parole plan- 
ning. Arts programs in correctional facilities should identify com- 
munity-based programs and create a system for making refer- 
rals for departing youth. If the facility draws youth from an 
entire state then state-wide community-based arts programs ought 
to be identified for departing youth and their parole officers. 

Development of network of arts programs 

Youth move from one juvenile justice setting to another - 
school to probation to corrections to parole to the commu- 
nity. In most states, there is little communication among these 
agencies about the young people's treatment and social ser- 
vice needs, and even less about their abilities and interests. 

Mixed Media, Gainesville State School 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Arts programs can provide a valuable link among these set- 
tings. Youth who have expressed an interest in the arts should 
be able to find and take advantage of similar cultural resources 
and classes when they return to the community. While all 
youth should have access to cultural resources, kids who have 
been in trouble sometimes not only have the greatest need for 
these programs, but also the greatest interest. 

Strategic planning and residency implementation should 
address the need for making linkages to existent commu- 
nity-based arts programs for departing incarcerated youth, 
and where there are none, it should plan to create them by 
bringing in new partners. Dialogue among schools, proba- 
tion and parole departments, and detention facilities around 
the issue of the availability of arts programs should be ini- 
tiated by the Project Director with the assistance of the part- 
ners. Detention center youth ought to be referred to pro- 
grams in public schools, in neighborhood community cen- 
ters, or in alternative schools. Community linkages with 
faith-based outreach programs, education centers in hous- 
ing developments, and parks and recreation departments 
should be explored. 

Tracking of participants 

To develop a truly effective strategic plan for serving adju- 
dicated youth through the arts, it is important to track par- 
ticipants once they leave an intervention setting such as a 
detention center and then to identify cultural resources in 
the new environments, determine a method for referring 
youth to the programs which exist, and find new partners 
to create new programs in those settings if none exist. State 
arts agencies can be good partners in this process. Almost 
every state arts agency has a community arts coordinator who 
knows the local arts organizations throughout the state and 
can provide contacts. Following are kinds of outreach ac- 
tivities developed by the six Initiative programs. 

Expansion of residencies to new settings 

Typically, residencies expand to new settings when they are 
requested by new partners who have heard about the pro- 
gram. Stretching existing dollars to serve new populations 
should be avoided when adding new partners. Each new part- 
ner entering into the collaboration should be encouraged to 

Community Outreach Activities 


Enhancement Projects 


Community Linkages 

Experimental Gallery 

Seattle, Washington 

Talented youth leaving the correctional facilities are referred to community-based arts programs by the Project 
Director in cooperation with the artists. 

Fred C. Nelles Facility 

Whittier, California 

The Artist Facilitator position in the California Youth Authority also has responsibilities for developing restorative 
justice opportunities for youth leaving CYA facilities in the community through cooperation with parole agencies. 

Bronx WritersCorps 

New York City, New York 

The Bronx WritersCorps has developed programs in New York City parole centers for youth paroled from state 
facilities. It is working with the Rochester program which operates an arts program at a state facility to identify 
youth being paroled to the Bronx. It also invites youth from the detention center to the programs it runs for 
community youth in its library-based center. 

Pilot Projects 

Gainesville State School 

Gainesville, Texas 

Gainesville receives its youth from all over the state of Texas. It works with the Texas Commission on the Arts to 
identify local arts agencies and arts programs in home communities as part of each departing youth's 
resocialization plan. Those students with GEDs or high school diplomas are provided with information about arts 
courses available at community colleges in their home communities. 

P.A.I.N.T.S. Program 

Rochester, New York 

The Monroe County Children's Center has Rochester ArtsReach as a partner, so many of the same artists in the 
detention program also work in the community. Artists sit on pre-release committees and identify community 
programs that would be available to a young offender upon release. In Rochester, the youth can oftentimes work 
with the same artist with whom they have already established a relationship when they move from one setting to 
another. Rochester has also expanded its programming to the Teen Court, probation, and parole programs. 

West Palm Beach 
Alternative Arts Center 

West Palm Beach, Florida 

West Palm Beach has developed a sophisticated system of serving youth in almost all county and state facilities in 
their community. Youth are transitioned into the mainstream through alternative education programs and referrals 
to the school district's arts magnet schools. 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

raise funds for the residencies they request, or at least steer 
the program in the direction of a new funding resource and 
help in securing that funding. This will maintain quality stan- 
dards in the existing residencies rather than dilute them. Cor- 
rectional facilities, probation departments, parole depart- 
ments and alternative learning centers welcome arts programs 
that bring their own money, but too often this money is 
"soft," the result of a grant which has a finite end. 

Investment of local partners 

Corrections and community partners need to be invested 
financially. They are the institutional recipients of the ser- 
vices and should be striving for annual budgetary procure- 
ments to support such programs. Once these agencies have 
leveraged an appropriation, it becomes easier to re-appro- 
priate funds and stabilize the program. 

G. Evaluation, Advocacy and Sustainability 

Advocacy and evaluation activities that generate program rec- 
ognition are critical components both to community accep- 
tance and to the financial sustainability of juvenile justice 
arts programs. 

Evaluation, advocacy and sustainability are important as- 
pects of any successful arts-in-juvenile justice program. 
They are part of the same fabric and share common goals: 
a) to keep the program going financially; b) to give key 
information to host institutions that require a data base; 
and c) to educate the public about the worth and benefits 
of the program. Sometimes arts programs are seen as a 
"fringe benefit" and institutions hesitate to publicize them 
lest it look as though they are "soft on crime." It is critical 
to the survival of arts-in-juvenile justice programs that they 
prove their worth both by presenting the work of the of- 
fender participants and by engaging the professional worlds 
of art, social services, and criminal justice in a dialogue 
about the work that is being done. 


Evaluation should be on-going, and both youth and artists should 
be surveyed about their experiences. 

Evaluation provides an opportunity to explore what is suc- 
cessful and what needs to be changed in program design and 
service delivery. It affords an ongoing occasion for youth, 
artists and staff to give feedback about the program. 4 While 
an evaluation study may have a specific "life" in that it mea- 
sures a specific period of time in the program's history, the 
process of data collection should be ongoing and perceived 
as a normal part of an arts-in-juvenile justice program. 

Evaluative process/team 

Youth are entered into justice system databases once they 
are arrested or court-involved. The fact that the juvenile jus- 
tice system records data on youthful offenders in an orga- 
nized fashion affords an opportunity for evaluation that is 
much more difficult in traditional community settings. It is 
critical that a process for data collection be put into place 
early. This can be one of the most time-consuming admin- 
istrative responsibilities and should be budgeted accordingly. 
An independent evaluator should be contracted to assist in 
the selection of instruments and the creation of a data col- 
lection process. This person or persons will be ultimately re- 
sponsible for a report that interprets the data and makes state- 
ments about the outcomes of the project. Schools of social 
work or art education at local universities are good poten- 
tial partners. Oftentimes a graduate student under the su- 
pervision of a faculty committee can be found to take an 
evaluation on as a thesis project. 

Indicators of success 

Common indicators for success are reduced recidivism, re- 
duction in behavioral indicators for delinquency, reduction 
in incident rates of misbehavior, improvements in academic 
achievement, improvements in arts skills, and improvements 
in self-esteem. Staff and artists should be interviewed for their 
perceptions about behavioral change and institutional 
change. While anecdotal evidence about successes by indi- 
vidual youth can supplement the hard data, statistics are im- 


Showcase youth artwork; it changes the minds of skeptics. 

It is important that arts programs publicize their efforts. 
Well-crafted products from the residencies in the form of 
books, videos, or CDs are very beneficial in promoting the 


Every residency should result in a culminating event, some 
"product" that allows for the participants to gain a measure 
of recognition and applause. This recognition leads to as 
much self-esteem building as the "process." Presenting the 
work of juvenile offenders often comes under the restraints 
of confidentiality. However, every arts residency should have 
the intent of presenting the work of the artists, especially 
since it is not always possible to present the artists them- 
selves. These products can take the form of anthologies of 
creative writing, exhibitions of visual art, performances of 
plays or music within facilities and sometimes outside. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


• Experimental Gallery, the Seattle/Tacoma-based 
project, is especially adept at the presentation of 
"product." It is a museum-based program that em- 
phasizes presentations at a high curatorial level. So- 
phisticated book publications such as We're Your 
Future Too have contributed to national recognition 
for the program in the form of a Coming Up Taller 
award as one of the top ten arts programs for high 
risk youth in the nation. Experimental Gallery has 
also produced high quality CDs and videos of stu- 
dent work resulting in a high profile for the pro- 
gram and new sources of funding. 


Presentations at regional, national, and even international 
conferences also enhance the recognition factor for arts-in- 
juvenile justice programs and inform the field about advances 
in this work. 

• During the first year of the Initiative, presentations 
were given for the Juvenile Detention Association 
of New York State (Rochester), the International 
NETWORK of Performing and Visual Arts Schools 
(West Palm Beach), the Western Museums Asso- 
ciation, and the Western State Arts Educators (Se- 
attle). Gainesville received special recognition for its 
arts program on the 100th anniversary of the juve- 
nile court. All six sites presented at the Creative So- 
lutions Institute in Fort Lauderdale. Exposure and 
accolades on a national level benefit the young 
people and the professional artists, and also help 

make local partners feel more secure about their par- 
ticipation and support. Both arts organizations and 
corrections partners are members of professional so- 
cieties which provide ample opportunities for pre- 
senting successful programs to their constituents. 


At the first training institute, funding trends for arts pro- 
grams for high risk youth were discussed. It was made clear 
that arts programs look to outcomes which demonstrate an 
interdependence between the goals of the arts and the needs 
of the community if they are to be continually funded. 

Need for strong program definition and public identity 

A program must have a clear identity as well as a sense of 
destiny. The hinder must see the project undertaken, see the 
process at work, see youth transformed, and understand how 
the funder's own mission will be furthered by the project. 
Arts providers must believe that the programs they are sup- 
porting are valuable to the community and the population 
being served. Funders are looking for strong strategic plans 
and demonstrated competence. 

Funding strategies 

Programs must find corporate and foundation philanthropists 
who are interested in serving youth. Programs must believe 
in and stand behind their goals; they should not develop a 
new agenda to fit guidelines of the funders. The potential 
grantee must speak in the language of the fonder, using terms 
that are persuasive and demonstrative of common goals. 

Student photograph, 
Gainesville State School 




Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Ongoing communication with funders 

Funders must be constantly involved and engaged in the suc- 
cess of the project - in both the process and the product. Pro- 
grams should acknowledge the hinders' contribution, share in- 
formation, and provide them with ongoing documentation and 
evaluative data. The program must be visible and constantly 
advocating for its continuation through exhibits and products. 
It is a common maxim of philanthropy that foundations and 
corporations don't give money to organizations, they give money 
to people. Sustainability is based on relationships. 

Public visibility 

All partners need to be involved and invested in order to bring 
the attention of these programs - and to convey their impor- 
tance - to future funders. Resources for sustainability include: 

National: The YouthArts Project and the Arts Programs for 
Young Offenders in Detention and Corrections Initiative 
were both demonstration projects of the Office of Juvenile 
Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the national En- 
dowment for the Arts. These pilots have paved the way for 
any arts-in-juvenile justice program nationally to solicit 
OJJDP funding which is passed down to every state through 
block grants. The Arts Endowment also supports arts pro- 
grams that provide positive alternatives for youth through 
its Challenge America Fast Track grants. Information about 
this and other Arts Endowment grant opportunities can be 
found on the Endowment's website: Addition- 
ally, this Arts Endowment provides information about arts 
funding which is available from other branches of govern- 
ment under Cultural Funding: Federal opportunities at . 

State: State arts commissions have been the most aggressive 
in supporting arts programs for young offenders. Their com- 
munity arts grants can often be applied to such programs if 
they do not have an arts-in-juvenile justice program already 
in place. It is also important to have contacts in the Judicial, 
Legislative and Executive branches of state government to 
determine where block grants are, what they're designated 
for, and what bills are pending in the state legislatures. It is 
important to find contact persons in state government who 
will share time and information. Several states have success- 
fully secured line item funding for arts-in-juvenile justice 
programs out of their legislatures. 

County/municipal: It is helpful to be supported by a pub- 
licly visible person who is known and established in the com- 

Photography lab, Gainesville State School 

munity. Juvenile judges fit this role. They are experienced 
at raising money for their own campaigns, and the ethics 
code does not prohibit them from soliciting funds to im- 
prove the juvenile justice system. Community foundations 
and local arts organizations can also work with programs to 
identify potential supporters. While they may not be able to 
provide funding directly, they can help access those who can. 
Faith-based organizations, parks and recreation departments, 
and art museum education departments can also be sources 
of support. 

Foundations and corporations: These can be sources of 
funding on the national, state, or local level, but it is critical 
to research their funding interests, or much time can be 
wasted on dead ends. They oftentimes do not fund programs 
on the first try, but familiarity and persistence pay off. A 
rejection should be seen as an opportunity to open up a dia- 
logue for a better second attempt. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


(Common Problem Areas 

Recommended Solutions 

Every arts-in-juvenile justice program is unique, but there 
appear to be some common problems that arise universally. 
These should be addressed in staff and artist training. 
Among them: 


Common Problem Area 

Artists and correctional staff often apply a different standard 
for what is appropriate in language, imagery and thematic 
content in student artwork. For example, many correctional 
professionals have been trained to recognize gang imagery. 
Conflicts can arise over when a crescent moon is a gang im- 
age and when it is just a crescent moon. 

Recommended Solution 

Dialogue among artists, staff and youth are critical to re- 
solving these issues. A typical compromise is that artists be 
provided a high degree of freedom within the workshop, with 
the understanding that the content of culminating projects 
will be reviewed by staff before a presentation is made to 
the public. Students should also be informed from the be- 
ginning that their work will be made public to be viewed by 
parents and family. This typically results in their reducing 
material that is used for shock value or to appear tough be- 
fore their peers. 


Common Problem Area 

Security is of paramount importance in correctional settings. 
Staff has as their number one goal the safety of the youth, 
the artist, and the staff themselves. While artists sometimes 
feel staff members are too overbearing, a reverse complaint 
is often registered that the staff rely too much on the artists 
to provide security services. The artist's role is to motivate 
and manage the class; the staffs role is to supervise and make 
sure the class and its participants are safe. Sometimes the 
artist has worked on the facility longer than the staff per- 
son, and there is an assumption made that the artist has su- 
pervisory capability. 

Recommended Solution 

Roles should be well defined between artist and staff regard- 
ing classroom management. Staff should be encouraged to 
work alongside the youth and provide appropriate encour- 

agement. The artist should be able to control a classroom, 
but staff has the obligation to intervene when there is a per- 
ceived danger. These roles should be made clear in artist and 
staff trainings. 

Establishing Professional Standards 

Common Problem Area 

Artists are paid professionals, and they should be held ac- 
countable to produce a challenging, skills based instructional 
environment. They are not volunteers there to have fun with 
the kids or engage in recreational activities. If the youth in a 
program are there voluntarily, all should be required to par- 
ticipate. If they are there involuntarily, the artist should strive 
to motivate as many youth as possible to participate, but 

Student photographs, Gainesville State School 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

universal participation is not required. Too often, artists 
spend an inordinate amount of time working with youth 
who will not participate rather than the ones who would 
most benefit 

Recommended Solution 

The artist should first engage the motivated youth in activi- 
ties, monitor their progress, and then attend to those who 
are not participating. The problem may be something simple, 
such as the youth does not understand English and a trans- 
lator (typically another youth who is bilingual) is necessary. 
In detention settings, where involuntary participation is rou- 
tine, youth should not be compelled to participate, and they 
can sit quietly while others work. However, they cannot par- 
ticipate in any other activity. In voluntary participation set- 
tings, artists should again attend to the motivated students 
and then address the non-participants. It should be made 
clear that participation is required and that they will be re- 
moved from the class if they only wish to observe and/or 

"Us vs. Them" 

Common Problem Area 

Most correctional facilities, by their nature, manifest some- 
what of an adversarial relationship between incarcerated 
youth and the juvenile correctional officers. Since the artist 
gives far more attention to youth than staff, the artist can 
often be drawn into taking the side of a student or students 
against staff. What may seem to be a totally unnecessary ac- 
tion or attitude by staff when described by students is rarely 
the whole story. 

Recommended Solution 

While artists are mentors for the students, the artist is there 
to provide educational instruction and a professional de- 
meanor, not serve as a mediator between youth and staff. 
The artist is not hired to help students with their personal 
problems. Counselors, teachers, and correctional staff are on 
site to provide that assistance. If the artist is disturbed by 
something that appears in student artwork, the artist should 
contact appropriate staff. There must be a cooperative rela- 
tionship between artist and staff. Otherwise, the artist will 
soon be gone. This must be made clear to artists up front in 
their training process. Artists who undermine the program 
by alienating staff should meet with the Project Director to 
discuss the situation, and if it is not remedied be removed 
from that setting. 

Painting, Gainesville State School 

Sometimes staff will act to subvert an arts program for a va- 
riety of reasons without cause by the artist. Artists should 
address this situation with the Project Director, who will then 
address it with the appropriate correctional administrator. 
If the situation is not remedied and the arts instruction can- 
not maintain an environment of respect and professional- 
ism, the program should begin looking for a new correc- 
tional setting. 

Institutional Change 

Common Problem Area 

Four of the six sites in the Initiative experienced turnovers 
in the administration of their host organizations. Some of 
these changes were political, the result of elections and new 
political appointees. Some were the result of reorganization. 
Many programs nationally have faded out of existence with 
the departure of supportive administrators. The fact that a 
program is doing well and a project is satisfying its funding 
requirements does not protect it from being dropped by a 
new administrator who knows little about the program and 
is looking to streamline the organization. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Recommended Solution 

While public advocacy was previously described as a neces- 
sary component to program sustainability, in-house advocacy 
can be equally important. Whenever new administrations are 
brought in, Project Directors should work with partners to 
take the initiative in educating them about the history, status 
and goals of the arts-in-juvenile justice program. 

Invoicing and Artist Pay 

Common Problem Area 

A confusing problem can arise at the beginning of a new 
residency concerning when and how much artists are going 
to be paid. There is oftentimes an institutional lag between 
the time artist's invoice and when checks are actually cut. 
Artists need to be prepared for this. An artist submitting a 
monthly invoice might not receive a check for six weeks re- 
sulting in a two and half month period between program 
implementation and receipt of the first check. Obviously, 
this can be a source of great distress. 

Recommended Solution 

The amount of financial reimbursement and any other fi- 
nancial expectations must be clear at the outset. Artists should 
be provided the necessary invoice forms during artist train- 
ing and should be advised in advance as to the likelihood of 
a time lag in pay. The Project Director should meet with 
the financial agent prior to receipt of the first invoice to learn 
the process for reimbursement and the time required, so the 
process can be expedited. 


Common Problem Area 

Traditionally, artists have been unable to use the names of 
young offenders or photographs/videos that show their faces 
due to the juvenile court's concern with confidentiality. 
Ten years ago, cameras were almost never permitted in cor- 
rectional facilities, much less in the hands of juvenile of- 
fenders. Had this handbook been published then, it would 
have advised that photography and video programs were 
out. Ten years later, four of the six sites in this initiative in 
four different states are allowed to provide photography 
residencies. It appears that there are no longer strict stan- 
dards of confidentiality. This can create confusion as to 
what the artist can do in the form of product that is shared 
with the public. 

Recommended Solution 

Artists and staff together must define what is permitted and 

what is- not. Most correctional facilities have a standard re- 

ase form that enables the use of a student name or like- 

ss. Some have special media release forms. Some require 

the signature of a parent or guardian; others do not (espe- 
cially if the youth is of a certain age defined by state stan- 
dards). Confidentiality concerns regarding what the artist has 
planned for residency content or a culminating event need 
to be worked out before artists begin their workshops, and 
not when there is a product ready to be made available to 
the public. 



Common Problem Area 

Most artists understand requirements of correctional facili- 
ties that they not allow student access to materials that might 
be used as weapons such as matte knives. However, other 
materials that seem innocuous enough may also be forbid- 
den, e.g. , spiral notebooks (the wire can be unthreaded from 
the paper and then rewound into a spike), and certain felt 
tip markers that can be abused as inhalants. Staff may ob- 
ject to art books that have nudes. Something as simple as 
providing students with felt tips and a pad to use in their 
cells for drawing practice may result in a program being shut 
down after graffiti has appeared throughout the dorm. 


Painting class, Gainesville State School 
Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Photo collages, Gainesville State School 

Recommended Solution 

If supplies and artwork can be stored on the facility, then 
it should be secured, and access by students should be su- 
pervised by the artist and staff. All supplies should be ac- 
counted for at the end of every workshop, and everything 
should be secured when the artist leaves. If there is no safe 
storage, then the artist may have to plan on bringing ev- 
erything necessary to the workshop each time he or she 
comes and on leaving with the same supplies and the stu- 
dent product. Obviously, community programs will oper- 
ate under a different standard but staff may still object to 
materials or tools they find inappropriate. Areas of con- 

cern such as these should be worked out by the artists and 
staff away from youth and only taken to the Project Di- 
rector if a solution cannot be worked out. 


Common Problem Area 

One of the biggest hindrances to programs in the early stages 
of development is the influence of stereotypes that students, 
artists, and staff carry about one another. "Juvenile delinquents 
are all violent, gangster drug addicts. Artists are flaky and un- 
reliable. Corrections officers are negative and abusive" 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Murals, Gainesville State School 

Recommended Solution 

Every program has to be founded on respect. Every partici- 
pant must give and expect to receive respect from the oth- 
ers. Any program that holds true to a philosophy of respect 
will be successful. This attitude can be achieved through 
mutual training of staff and artists where relationships 
built on familiarity and common goals can be built. In the 

workshops, staff should be encouraged to participate and 
make art alongside the kids. Oftentimes, the structure of the 
workshop itself gives staff no role to play except that of an 
overseer. Ultimately, the tone of a workshop falls on the 
shoulders of the artist, and the artist must strive to create an 
environment where everyone involved feels comfortable and 

Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

^Training Institutes 

In any arts program for juvenile offenders that involves mul- 
tiple sites, bringing together corrections and arts representa- 
tives from all the sites prior to project inception for orienta- 
tion and training generates focused professionalism, enhances 
communication, and creates opportunities for networking 
and mentoring. 

The Technical Assistance Program 

The project RFP understood the importance of technical as- 
sistance and training to enable the work of the enhancement 
sites and pilot demonstration projects. Funding was included 
"for the purpose of ensuring focused, professional technical 
support for program development and implementation, in- 
cluding program design, artist selection and training, and 
interaction between arts organizations and the juvenile jus- 
tice system." 

The specific goals of the TA program were to: 1) create a 
joint training institute for all six sites; 2) provide consultant 
visits to the pilot sites on a quarterly basis with annual visits 
to the enhancement sites for planning and training purposes; 
and 3) to provide on-going consultant services to all six sites. 

Grady Hillman received the Technical Assistance grant from 
OJJDP to develop a technical assistance program which 
would fulfill these goals. Hillman was selected to provide 
this service owing to his twenty years of work as both an 
artist working in correctional settings and his extensive ex- 
perience as a consultant to arts-in-corrections programs na- 
tionwide and in Europe and South America. Hillman is the 
author of Artists in the Community: Training Artists to Work 
in Alternative Settings, the first publication in the YouthARTS 
Development Project. This document carries on that tradi- 
tion and is the final product of the Technical Assistance pro- 
gram. It chronicles the service delivery models and "promis- 
ing practices" employed by the six sites in the Initiative, and 
will, hopefully, serve as a networking and information in- 
strument for other programs. 

The following section describes the training institutes that 
were held during the course of the Initiative. 

Training Institute strategy 

Three training institutes were held during the course of this 

Training Institute I: Introduction 

October 1999 Washington, DC 


The primary purpose of the first institute was to bring to- 
gether at least two people from each site, one representing a 
correctional institution and one representing the arts part- 
ner, so that all sites might learn about the program designs 
and plans for service delivery of the others. Participants met 
with the TA (Technical Assistance) provider (Grady 
Hillman) and the Program Managers from OJJDP (Eric 
Stansbury) and the Arts Endowment (Molly Johnson) in 
order to gain a better grasp of the expectations and assis- 
tance that would be forthcoming from the TA program and 
the partner institutions. Each of the three enhancement sites 
gave presentations about their on-going programs for the 
purpose of sharing their experiences and expertise with one 
another, and the pilots followed with presentations describ- 
ing their proposed projects. 


The original training institute familiarized grantees with the 
technical assistance resources available to them for the con- 
duct of their projects, worked to enhance networking and 
cooperation between the sites. It introduced evaluation meth- 
odologies, described a variety of national and international 
program designs, and began early preparation for financial 
sustainability with consultants from both the corrections and 
arts worlds. Information provided at the training institute 
has been integrated throughout this monograph in the rel- 
evant sections. 

A sense of the scope and breadth of the training can be 
achieved by acknowledging some of the presenters. They in- 
cluded: Shay Bilchik, then Director of OJJDP, and Bill Ivey, 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


then Chairman of the Arts Endowment. Marianne Assiff of 
the Tampa-based Youth Arts Corps provided a history of 
the development of her successful juvenile justice program. 
James Thompson of the University of Manchester and the 
TIPP Centre (Theater in Probations and Prisons) provided 
information about successful program practices in the United 
Kingdom and Europe. Hunter Hurst III, Executive Direc- 
tor of the National Center for Juvenile Justice, spoke about 
contemporary trends in service models in the juvenile jus- 
tice system along with advice about opportunities for finan- 
cial sustainability. Jonathan Katz, Director of the National 
Assembly of State Arts Agencies, provided parallel informa- 
tion for the field of community arts. The RAND Corpora- 
tion provided a presentation on strategies for evaluating arts- 
in-juvenile justice programs. The TA provider gave an over- 
view of YouthArts and described the consulting services that 
would be available to the sites. 

Training Institute II: Sharing 

June 2000 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 


Representatives from all six sites, the Arts Endowment, 
OJJDP and the TA provider met at a statewide gathering in 
Florida, hosted by VSA Arts, Arts for a Complete Educa- 
tion/Florida Alliance of Art Educators, and the Florida De- 
partment of Juvenile Justice. 


Arts programs in Juvenile Justice Centers was a specific con- 
ference strand, and each of the six Initiative programs were 
invited as Best Practice models to make individual presenta- 
tions at the Creative Solutions Institute: Reaching Youth at Risk 
through the Arts. This second institute provided the sites with 
an opportunity to refine their advocacy strategies, to net- 
work with similar programs, and to meet together to share 
experiences and renew focus. 

Training Institute III: Sustainability 

November, 2001 Austin, Texas 


The third and final institute provided an opportunity for rep- 
resentatives from the six sites to discuss lessons learned dur- 
ing their participation in the federal initiative and hear from 
leaders in the field regarding potential funding sources and 
sustainability of their programs beyond federal funding. 


Cindy Ballard, Executive Director of the Coalition of Com- 
munity Foundations for Youth, chaired the first day's meet- 
ing. She also provided a presentation on the role of the com- 
munity foundation in supporting community youth pro- 
grams. Each site was provided with specific information 
about community foundations existing in its locale. Other 
speakers the first day were John Paul Batiste, Executive Di- 
rector of the Texas Commission on the Arts, and Vicki 
Spriggs, Executive Director of the Texas Juvenile Probation 
Commission. They discussed the evolving missions of state 
arts and probation commissions and identified potential 
funding sources. They also provided advice regarding state 
legislatures and how to work with them to generate legisla- 
tion and appropriations to support arts-in-juvenile justice 

The second half day of the institute was chaired by Dianne 
Logan, Executive Director of SCAN (Southwest Correc- 
tional Arts Network). She provided information about 
other successful arts-in-corrections programs around the na- 
tion and the various program designs and strategies that 
had resulted in sustainability. John Cocoros of Cocoros As- 
sociates, a juvenile justice consulting firm, provided in- 
depth consultation to the participants about the world of 
juvenile justice and assisted them in developing survival 
strategies. Prior to the creation of his firm, Cocoros served 
as Chief of the Harris County Juvenile Probation Depart- 
ment (Houston), the third largest in the nation and one 
that developed arts programs for both detention and pro- 
bation settings. 

Training Resources 

There are experts in the field of arts-in-juvenile justice who 
can provide consultant services in the development of this 
type of program. Some resources are the Community Arts 
Training Directory of the Community Arts Network 
( and SCAN (Southwest Correctional 
Arts Network) which can be contacted at . 

Nationwide Survey 

During the first year of the Initiative, the TA program con- 
tracted with the Southwest Correctional Arts Network to 
survey the arts in juvenile justice community. A condensed 
version of that survey with an interpretive report by Susan 
Warner is attached as part of this report. 

-. ■ 

Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

^inal Survey Report 

by Susan Warner 

January 30, 2000 


The Arts Programs for Young Offenders in Detention and 
Corrections initiative was able to fund three pilot sites and 
three best practice sites, yet the hinders were aware that nu- 
merous programs existed with rich experience to share. With 
over sixty initial applicants, it was deemed important that 
the knowledge imbedded in these programs be made avail- 
able and shared with the goals of creating a sustainable and 
comprehensive field. To achieve this, a survey form was de- 
veloped with the assistance of Grady Hillman, Technical As- 
sistance Provider for the Initiative, and the members of the 
Southwest Correctional Arts Network. The questions sought 
to draw forth information on the kinds of art disciplines uti- 
lized, the number of youth exposed, the kinds of artists em- 
ployed, the products generated, budgets, and founding dates. 
It was also critical to develop an understanding of the chal- 
lenges facing the field and any impediments for growth. Data 
from the survey forms was collected between August 1999 
and February 2000. It was then organized to create a profile 
of the programs and the field. The following provides a brief 
overview of the data collected and some conclusions that may 
be drawn. A total of 120 surveys were mailed; 24 were re- 
turned, for a 20% response rate. 


Type of Arts Programming 

Visual and Performing Arts: 7 

Multi Media: 6 

Visual Arts: 5 

Visual, Performing and Literary Arts: 1 

Visual and Literary Arts: 1 

Performing Arts: 1 

Dance: 1 

Drama: 1 

Literary Arts and Drama: 1 

Evaluation and Academic Credit 

12 programs had formal evaluation 

10 programs offered academic credit (6 of these programs 
offered both evaluation and academic credit) 

3 programs offered academic credit with no evaluation 


5 programs had funding of $200,000 or over 

7 programs with budgets between $100,000 - 200,000 

1 program specified a budget of $150,000 

10 programs had funding of $50,000 or under 

1 program budget unavailable 

Number of programs that receive funding from a correctional 
partner: 7 

Number Served 

Numbers of youth served varied from 12 to 3,000, prob- 
ably reflecting the wide range of funding sources from ei- 
ther sustained line-item funding or programs that raised 
funds on a project basis. 

Technical Assistance Needs 

Artist selection and/or training: 9 
Fund raising and grant writing: 10 
Program design: 9 
Curriculum design: 1 1 
Evaluation: 18 
Partnership building: 4 
Community relations: 4 
Legislative/political advocacy: 7 
Long range and strategic planning: 8 
Stress management: 6 
Correctional staff training: 8 

Year Founded 

1965: 1 
1967: 2 
1972: 1 
1991: 1 
1992: 1 
1993: 1 
1994: 1 
1996: 1 
1997: 5 
1998: 3 
1999: 2 

2 dates unavailable. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Use of Professional Artists 

The number of programs that employ professional artists for 

fees: 21 

Professional and volunteer artists: 10 

Professional artists, volunteer artists, art teachers:: 9 

Project based: 1 1 

On-going: 8 

Interpretive Summary 

Most programs offer a multidisciplinary arts education model 
that utilizes a combination of contracted professional art- 
ists, art teachers from the local school district, and volun- 
teers. 43.2% of the programs were founded in the 1990s. 
Slightly less than half the programs employ some kind of 
formal evaluation process to measure success although more 
than three-quarters of the responses indicated unease with 
evaluation. 1 8 programs out of the 23 requested technical 
assistance with this, and as such, evaluation was the most 
requested service. Slightly less than half the programs offered 
academic credit for their participants but three programs had 
no means in place to measure the success of this. 

Budgets reflected an even split between programs with bud- 
gets of $100,000 and over, while 10 programs had bud- 
gets of less than $50,000. Only 16.8% received support 
from a correctional facility. Numbers of youth served fluc- 
tuate between 3,000 — 12 but, unfortunately, the responses 
to this question were uneven; therefore, the actual num- 
bers of youth being served by all 24 programs could not 
be determined. 

The most requested areas of support were in evaluation, 
fund-raising, and curriculum and program design. The cor- 
relation between these four disciplines is interesting in that 
one inter-relates with the other. Successful fund-raising is 
enhanced by strong program/curriculum design and evalua- 
tion. It is not unexpected that evaluation was considered the 
weakest area for most programs in that it is perhaps the most 
intangible and challenging discipline to master for arts-based 
organizations. Long-range and strategic planning were con- 
sidered by 8 programs to be critical, and areas where sup- 
port was needed. Interestingly, public relations and partner- 
ship building were the lowest request areas. This may reflect 
confidence in the strength of existing partnerships. This se- 
curity may, however, be misplaced since the Harvard Study 
on existing arts-partnerships and what makes them work 

would suggest that partnerships that survive require constant 
evolution and nurturing. Second, the lowest response for as- 
sistance was in community relations and may reflect per- 
ceived widespread community support for these programs; 
however, it is doubtful if the general public is widely aware 
of these programs and their objectives. This is perhaps the 
most troublesome area of response in that public opinion is 
generally supportive of a punitive correctional system, and 
the arts have traditionally been regarded as soft, " luxury" 
programs for offenders. Most newspaper stories included in 
the responses did reflect positive media attention, but does 
this truly reflect public opinion? 


The data would suggest that the nineties saw a mini-renais- 
sance in the field of arts-in-corrections and that for a variety 
of reasons these programs are seen as valuable to replicate, 
at least within the art community. Many of these programs 
have grown in relative isolation but have defined themselves 
with the common threads described above. The federal ini- 
tiative created a link to these disparate programs creating a 
growing camaraderie and communication infrastructure be- 
tween important players and their programs. 

Longevity is critical, however, to gaining experience and cre- 
ating an acceptance within the correctional system. Only 3 
programs have histories of 30 years or more and it would 
seem practical to engage these programs in a fruitful dia- 
logue as to their successes and failures within the political/ 
economic context of their states. Of these three programs, 
one is established within a state arts commission, one is an 
independent organization, and one is a correctional facility. 
All have budgets within the higher range. 

Ten programs were established in the last three years. Five 
have budgets of over $100,000 and five have budgets of less 
than $50,000. These ten programs vary greatly as to their 
organizational structure and scope of service. How many of 
these programs will succeed will be dependent on the skill 
they attain in program/curriculum design, evaluation and 
fund raising. The substantial increase in activity over the last 
three years in this field is encouraging. The breadth, depth 
and scope of service being offered are worthy of note as is 
the legacy created at each facility. Each of these programs, 
in its own way, brings hope and transformation into lives 
that are burdened by despair. It behooves the field to con- 
tinue to strive for excellence and a code of professional stan- 
dards that will engender respect and continued relationships. 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

^/ational Survey of Arts-in-Juvenile Justice Programs 

Organization, Contact Person, 
Address & Affiliation 

Arts Connect 

Consuelo Underwood 
Arts Council of Silicon Valley 
4 North 2nd St. 
San Jose, CA 951 13 


Barbara Brown 

South Dakota for the Arts 

Deadwood, SD 57732 

Art from the Heart 

Rebecca Pettit 

South Bend Regional Art Museum 

1000 S. Michigan 

South Bend, IN 46601 

Arts in Education 

Utah Arts Council 

617 E.Temple 

Salt Lake City, UT 84102 

Art Inside 

Christy Doerflinger 
1442 Rufer Ave. 
Louisville, KY 40204 

Roosevelt Service Center 

Lois D. Biddix or Dee Mac 
1601 North Tamarind Ave. 
West Palm Beach, FL 33407 

Cultural Council of Greater 

Marcus Haille 
300 West Water St. 
Jacksonville, FL 

Delaware Theatre Company 

Charles Conway 
or James Wigo 
959 Centre Rd 
Wilmington, DE 19805 

Experience Art Project 

Amy Chotard Brooks 
4001 Elijah Brown St. 
Jackson, MS 39225 
Mississippi Arts Council 

Experimental Gallery 

Susan Warner 

Museum of Glass: International Center for 

Contemporary Art 

934 Broadway, Ste. 204 

Tacoma, WA 98402 


Santa Clara County Department of Education 

South Dakota Department of Corrections 

South Bend Regional Art Museum 

Granite School District 
Wasatch Youth Facility 
Gunnison State Prison 

Jefferson County Youth Center 

Detention, Corrections and Alternative Education 
in Palm Beach County, Florida 

State Attorney's Office 

Department of Corrections 

Juvenile Drug Court Mental Health Resource Center 

Department of Services for Children 

Ferris School for Boys 

Hinds County Juvenile Detention Center 

Department of Social and Health Services 
Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration 

# of Youth 

800 youth per annum 

1000 youth 

90 per summer 


3000 per annum 


40 youth per project 

500 per annum 

300 per annum 

Art Media 

Visual and Performing Arts 


Visual Arts 



Visual and Performing Arts 

Visual and Performing Arts 

Visual and Performing Arts 

Visual Arts 


A Guide to Promising Practices 


Organization, Contact Person, 
Address & Affiliation 

Gainesville State School 

LaVerne Harrison 
1379 FM 678 
Gainesville, TX 76240 

Art Department 

Frances £ Anderson 
Illinois State University 
Campus Box 5620 
Normal, IL 61790 

pARTners unlimited 

Kelly Boon 

3716 Ingersoll Ave. B 

Des Moines, IA 50319 

Leslie Neal Inc. 

Leslie Neal 
PO Box 558668 
Miami, FL 33255 

Monroe County Children's Center 

Jack Rosatti 

355 Westfall Road 

Rochester, NY 14620 

Department of Social and Health Services 


Ellen Robinson 
Broadlands Hospital 
1621 -34th 
Des Moines, IA 

Peer Education Theater Program 

Michael Robbins 

528 Hennepin Ave., Suite 704 

Minneapolis, MN 55405 

Playwrights Theatre of New Jersey 

John Pietrowski 
33 Green Village Rd. 
Madison, NJ 07940 

Street SmArt Dance 

Chris Lidvall 

Chrysalis Dance Co.PO Box 980398 

Houston, TX 77098 

Swimming Pool Theater Project 

Dr. Eben Gilbert 
Box 400 
Pikeville, TN 37367 


Texas Youth Commission 

McLean County Juvenile Detention Center 

Polk County Youth Services 

Des Moines Men's Correctional Facility 

Youthful Offender Program 

Florida Department of Corrections 
Broward and Dade Correctional Facilities 

Monroe County 

detention, probation, and teen court 

New York State 

corrections and parole 

Hennepin County Juvenile Corrections 

Ringwood, Morris Twp, Nr. Brunswick Chester 

Harris County Juvenile Probation Dept. 

Taft Youth Development Center 

# of Youth 

100 per annum 


750 per annum 

15-20 per month 

5-12 peer educators 
350 -450 audience 


12 per project 


Art Media 

Visual and Performing Arts 

Visual Arts 


Performing and Literary Arts 

Visual Arts 

Visual Arts 

Performing and Visual Arts 

Performing Arts 




Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 

Organization, Contact Person, 
Address & Affiliation 

The Waterways 

Project of the Ten Penny Players 
393 St. Paul's Ave. 
Staten Island, NY 10304 

Writing our Stories 

Jeanie Thompson 
Alabama State Council on the Arts 
201 Monroe Street 
Montgomery, AL 36030-1800 

Young Audiences of Greater 
Dallas Creative Solutions 

Lisa Schmidt 

4145 Travis, Suite 201 

Dallas, TX 75204 

Youth Art Corps 

Mary Ann Assiff 
501 Central Ave. 
St. Petersburg, FL 33701 


Hikers Island Correctional Facility 

# of Youth 

1,200 per school year 

Art Media 


Alabama Department of Youth Services 
Mt. Meigs, Chalkville, Birmingham 

60 per fiscal year 

Literary Arts and Drama 

Dallas County Juvenile Department, 
Correctional Services Corporation 

25 youth per project 

Visual and Performing Arts 

Pinellas Art Council 

Visual, Performing and 
Literary Arts 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


References and Readings 

Arts in Corrections Program Report 1987/88. Sacramento, CA: 
California Department of Corrections, 1987. 

Brewster, L. A Cost Benefit Analysis of the California Depart- 
ment of Corrections Arts in Corrections Program. Santa Cruz, 
CA: William James Association, 1983. 

Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. 
Arts Education Partnership: http:/ , 1999. 

Clawson, H and Coolbaughby, K. The YouthARTS Devel- 
opment Project. Arts in the Public Interest, Community Arts 
Network Reading Room,, 2001. 

Cleveland, W. Art in Other Places: Artists at Work in America s 
Community and Social Institutions. Westport CT: Praeger 
Publishers, 1992. 

Cleveland, W. An Evaluation of the Core Arts Program: 1998- 
2001. Minneapolis, MI: Center for the Study of Art and 
Community, 2001. 

Durland, S. Maintaining Humanity: Grady Hillman talks 
about arts programs in correctional settings. Saxopoha, NC: 
High Performance #71, Spring 1996. 

Ezell, M. A Changed World: Experimental Gallery Evalua- 
tion of the Second and Third Year. Seattle: University of Wash- 
ington, 1998. (Unpublished manuscript) 

Hillman, G. The Arts and Humanities as Agents for Social 
Change: Summary Report, 4th International Congress of Edu- 
cating Cities. Chicago, II: Chicago Department of Cultural 
Affairs, 1996. 

tical Guide to Enhancing Student Literacy. Hillsboro, OR: 
Blue Heron Publishing, 1992. 

Hillman, G. with Gaffney, K. Artists in the Community: 
Training Artists to Work in Alternative Settings. Washington 
D.C.: Americans for the Arts, Institute for Community De- 
velopment and the Arts, 1996. 

McArthur, D, Law, S., and Moini, J. The Arts and Public 
Safety Impact Study: An Examination of Best Practices. Santa 
Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, Institute on Education 
and Training, 1997. 

Thompson, J. Theatre and Offender rehabilitation: Observa- 
tions from the USA. Research in Drama Education, Vol.3 #2. 
London: 1998. 

Thompson, J. Prison Theatre: Perspectives and Practices (Fo- 
rensic Focus 4). London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley 
Publishers Inc., 1998. 

Warner, S. Arts Programs for Incarcerated Youth: A National 
and International Comparative Study. Seattle: Antioch Uni- 
versity, 1999. (Thesis) 

Weitz, J. Coming Up Taller: Arts and Humanities Pro- 
grams for Children and Youth At Risk. Washington, DC: 
The President's Committee on the Arts and Humani- 
ties, 1996. 

Williams, R. The Art and Experience of Selected Women In- 
mates at the Taycheedah Correctional Institution. Tallahassee, 
FL: Florida State University. (Dissertation) 

Hillman, G. in King, L and Stodall (Eds.). Anthologies by YouthARTS, arts programs for youth at risk: the Tool Kit. 
Correctional Facility Students, Classroom Publishing: A Prac- Washington DC: Americans for the Arts, 1998. 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 


'See References and Readings for overview and bibliogra- 
phy of research on arts programs for adult and juvenile of- 

2 Anyone beginning this work should familiarize themselves 
with other arts-in-juvenile justice programs and the accepted 
best practices of the field. This handbook is designed to help, 
but contact with programs profiled here or listed in the di- 
rectory is also encouraged. The YouthArts Toolkit, published 
by Americans for the Arts with the support of OJJDP and 
the Arts Endowment, is an excellent guide derived from an 
earlier collaborative initiative between these two agencies. 

3 A good guide for selecting and training artists is Artists in 
the Community: Training Artists to Work in Alternative Set- 

tings which is available from Americans for the Arts along 
with the YouthArts Toolkit. It has a special section on pre- 
paring artists to work in correctional settings. 

Evaluation needs to be addressed up front in any strategic 
planning process. In the Appendices of the YouthArts Toolkit 
(found on the CD) there is a large selection of evaluation 
instruments developed for the YouthArts Project. All Initia- 
tive sites received copies of these instruments and used them 
to devise evaluation schemes that accurately reflected the 
work happening in their own programs. They adapted these 
instruments and supplemented them with instruments al- 
ready being used by their correctional or educational part- 
ners. The Toolkit is available through Americans for the Arts: ; 202/371-2830 or 212/225-2787. 

Grady Hillman is a poet and community 
arts consultant. He is the author of 

Artists in the Community: Training Artists 
To Work in Alternative Settings. 

A Guide to Promising Practices 


Student exhibition, Roosevelt Alternative School, West Palm Beach 


Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections 


U.S. Department of Justice 

Office of Justice Programs 

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 

810 Seventh Street NW 
Washington, DC 20531 



National Endowment for the Arts 

1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW 

Washington, DC 20506